Convention on Nuclear Safety
Following the Chernobyl accident that took place in Soviet Ukraine in 1986, a number of countries including Sweden were the initiators for drafting an international nuclear safety convention within the framework of the United Nations' atomic energy agency, the IAEA.
The aim was to create an international platform for open dialogue on safety work by means of a regular review mechanism involving the participation of all countries with nuclear power programmes. In 1994, a convention text was adopted on safe operation of land-based nuclear power plants. Sweden ratified the Convention on Nuclear Safety in September 1995. The Convention entered into force in 1996.
The parties to the Convention are required to submit a national report every third year accounting for their respective national compliance with the Convention. These reports are reviewed by other parties at a review conference, which is held at the IAEA in Vienna. Thus, each party has an obligation to review a number of the other countries’ national reports. The first review meeting convened in 1999.
Since 1998, the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and its predecessors have been assigned by the Government of Sweden to produce a national report every third year on Sweden’s level of fulfilment of the Convention on Nuclear Safety on the part of the Swedish Government and regulatory authorities, licensees and nuclear power plant owners in relation to their respective commitments under the Convention.
Following the accident that took place in 2011 at Fukushima Daiichi, Japan, and in order to emphasize a clearer position of the contracting parties regarding certain safety principles, the Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety was drafted and agreed upon in 2012. The contracting parties adopted the Declaration in 2015. The Vienna Declaration on Nuclear Safety contains three principles to be followed for the purpose of preventing major radioactive releases and large-scale land contamination. The principles define applicable articles of the Convention and it was agreed by the parties that fulfilment of these principles must be reflected by the national reports.