The Treaty on Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is the foundation for both national and international supervision and control of nuclear material, equipment and technology. States that are parties to the NPT are committed to adhere to the requirements and conditions that follow from the Treaty. That means that a party state must develop adequate national legislation and establish state systems for nuclear material accounting and control, for physical protection of nuclear material and facilities and for export/import control of nuclear material, equipment and technology. Furthermore, the state must assign independent and competent national authorities for the supervision and control of the implementation of the requirements that the NPT obligations impose on the nuclear industry.
When developing the seven Law Concepts on national nuclear legislation that are presented in this report, the ILG has applied certain basic principles, which are firmly established in modem Western legislation. A summary of these principles is made here. They are essential cornerstones in laws and regulations that apply both to the nuclear industry and to other high technology areas, characterised by advanced safety and security requirements. Of essential importance is that the Operator alone is responsible for the fulfilment of requirements stipulated in laws and authority directieves.